STRATEGIES FOR LEADERSHIP TRAINING
We are in the new millenium. It seems that major changes are taking place now and will intensify towards the end of the century. The change we are witnessing is in business also at the international level. Today business world is gearing up to meet the challenges for the future. So we need a leader who can transform the entire business system and lead the business with vision, proactiveness, entrepreunial ability. Adds Mr N. R. Narayan Murti CMD Infosys “The primary purpose of corporate leadership is to create wealth, loyality & ethical business practice. This translates to bringing a high level of satisfaction to five constituencies customers, employees, investors, vender, the society at large”. Mr. M. H. Athreya management Guru sends teams of managers form TCS, Godrej & Boyce, HCL for adventure training. According to him “ A real life situation brings out how leader operates in a crisis”. This is admitted by Mr. John Abraham V.P HR TCS “ The programme helped to bring out sum of the inherent factors in an individual to the forefront”.
Leadership training has become most important factor in new people management. Smart and professional companies are breeding a generation of managers who lead the company through empowerment, leadership.
Basically there are four broad approaches to explain effective leadership.
Trait theories that seek personality & social, physical, intellectual qualities that differentiate leaders and non-leaders.
Behavioral theories argue that specific behaviour differentiates leaders from non-leaders. e.g. Ohio state studies, university of michigun studies, managerial grid.
Contingency theories that try to isolate the key situational variables which affect leadership. E.g. Fiedler model, the situational leadership model, the leader member exchange theory.
Characteristics theories which looks at leadership with down to earth fashion. E.g. attribute theory, charismatic leadership, transactional vs. Transformative leadership.
Leadership training programmes can draw out the qualities of leadership in people. Now the question is how to create a suitable strategy for leadership training.
- The grid model
- The situational model
- The 9 + 1 + 23 model 4. The mentoring model
The grid model :- This model was developed by American behavioural scientists Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. This programme was introduced in India by former Director (HR) Indian Rayon Dr. P. N. Singh. This methodology is built on three dimensions. The horizontal axis represents a mangers concern for production or results. Vertical axis plots is concern for the people he works with. Third axis measures his performance. A mangers emphasis on results & his sensivity to people are then graded on a nine point scale in which represents a very low level of care and nine a very high level. Although there are eighty one positions.
1.1 Shows impoverished management style or extension of minimum effort to get require work done.
1.9 Country club management style or thought full attention to the needs of people.
9.1 Authority complaint management style.
5.5 Middle of the road management style where adequate organisational performance is balance with the need to maintain satisfactory morale.
9.9 High degree of team management or work accomplishment from committed people.
The Situational model :- For Indian Hotel groups the issue was leadership in an empowered environment. In the hotel industry it is front line staff that confront 90 % of the moments of truth each time a customer makes a judgement about the quality of the service he is being provided. To ensure both customer satisfaction this group had started empowering its people. So they used a series of workshops best on leadership expert Paul Harvey and Ken Blanchard’s situational leadership techniques. Each workshops consisted three session, first focused on personal development, second helped develop groups skill, third session devoted entirely to inputs from senior mangers to help the participants to develop a proper perspective.
The 9+1+23 model :- This model is used by Xerox. Here 9 refers to the nine basic cultural attributes of the company, 1 refers to valuing diversity such as brining more women into the work place, 23 refers to the attributes that define leadership in the Xerox style of management. Here in India Modi Xerox is also using this model.
The Mentoring model :- Role models are the cornerstone of the leadership development process at Eicher group. Says Mr. Deepak Dhavan ED Eicher good earth “We believe the superior must set the right example by encouraging subordinates to play leadership roles”. Eicher uses the concept of career development groups, each employee is at center of the CDG which consists of immediate chief, boss’s boss, an uncle - a person from a different division. The CDG is them responsible for appraising, monitoring and planning each individuals career and developing path. This process works in tandem with formal training process.
Smarts companies are learning not just to hire leaders but to grow them too. Says Arun Joshi President group (HR) RPG “The need of the leader is to sense conflict, resolve it and bring people together”.